Online access to many Palgrave Macmillan journals provides users with Advance Online Publication (AOP) - definitive, citable version of papers (complete with Digital Object Identifier, or DOI) available online ahead of print.


Is the AOP version of the article definitive?

Yes. Different publishers have different policies and some journals publish unedited or partly edited versions of articles on their web sites, before publishing them in print. Palgrave Macmillan's policy, however, is to publish online only the final version of the paper, exactly as it will be published in the printed edition. The paper is thus complete in every respect except that instead of having a volume/issue/page number, it has a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). This means that the paper can be referenced as soon as it appears on the AOP site by using the DOI.


What is a Digital Object Identifier?

A digital object identifier (DOI) is an international, public, "persistent identifier of intellectual property entities" in the form of a combination of numbers and letters. For Palgrave Macmillan content the DOI is assigned to an item of editorial content, providing a unique and persistent identifier for that item. The DOI system is administered by the International DOI Foundation, a not-for-profit organization. CrossRef, a not-for-profit organization, makes the DOI a reference linking standard and enables cross-publisher linking. It also maintains the lookup system for DOIs.


What do the numbers in the DOI signify?

The DOI has two components, a prefix (before the slash) and a suffix (after the slash). The prefix is a DOI resolver server identifier (10) and a unique identifier assigned to the publisher-for example, the identifier for Palgrave Macmillan is 1057 and the entire DOI prefix for an article published by Palgrave Macmillan is 10.1057. The suffix is an arbitrary number provided by the publisher; it can be composed of numbers and/or letters and does not necessarily have any systematic significance. Each DOI is registered in a central resolution database that associates it with one or more corresponding web locations (URLs). For example, the doi:10.1057/abm.2009.25 connects to


Can I use the DOI in a reference citation?

Yes. Instead of giving the volume and page number, you can give the paper's DOI at the end of the citation. For example, Palgrave Macmillan Journals papers should be cited in the form;
Author(s) Palgrave Macmillan Journals advance online publication, day month year (DOI 10.1057/abm.2009.25).

After print publication, you should give the DOI as well as the print citation to enable readers to find the paper in print as well as online. For example;
Author(s) (Year) Article Palgrave Macmillan Journals volume, page(s); advance online publication, day month year (DOI 10.1057/abm.2009.25).


How can I use a DOI to find a paper?

There are two ways to use a DOI to find a paper:

  1. DOIs from other articles can be embedded into the linking coding of an article's reference section. In Palgrave Macmillan journals these appear as "|Article|" in the reference sections. When |Article| is clicked upon it opens another browser window leading to the entrance page (often the abstract) for another article. Depending on the source of the article, this page can be on the Palgrave Macmillan site or the site of another publisher. This service is enabled by CrossRef.
  2. A DOI can be inserted directly into the browser's location bar. For example, for the doi:10.1057/palgrave.pal.1300015, typing brings up the entrance page of the article.

What is the official publication date?

Many journals, including most abstracting and indexing services (including Medline and ISI), cite the print date as the publication date. This is an evolving standard, however, and publishers are increasingly stating both the 'online publication date' and the 'print publication date'. Palgrave Macmillan will continue to publish both dates for our own papers, and we hope that the scientific communities and abstracting and indexing services will recognize these dates. We will endeavour to include both the online publication date and the usual print citation in reference lists of Palgrave Macmillan papers, where a paper has been published online before being published in print. Given the utility of the DOI in locating an online publication in the future, we encourage you to use DOIs in your reference citations (see "Can I use the DOI in a reference citation?").
For legal purposes (for example, establishing intellectual property rights), we assume that online publication constitutes public disclosure. But this is for the courts to decide; Palgrave Macmillan's role as a publisher is to provide clear documentation of the publication history, both online and in print.


Must I subscribe to the journal in order to read AOP articles?

Yes. AOP papers are the same as those in the print issues: while abstracts are freely available on any Palgrave Macmillan journal's web site, access to the full-text article requires a paid subscription or a site license unless it is an open access article through Palgrave Open.


Does The Institute for Scientific Information use DOIs?

ISI (Institute for Scientific Information) currently captures DOIs in its records at the same time as the volume/issue/page number. Therefore, ISI is not using the DOI to capture information before print publication, but rather as an additional piece of metadata.


How does AOP affect the calculation of Impact Factors and Citation Counts?

If someone cites an AOP article, using the DOI form of citation noted above, then Thomson Reuters (ISI), which produces various citation databases and calculates Impact Factors, is able to match the citation to the final indexed version of the article.

Thomson Reuters (ISI) uses several data elements, including the DOI, to link citations to the original articles. If someone cites an AOP article this citation can link to the final (citeable in Volume/Issue) form of the article. Citations using the DOI form, as well as the Volume/Issue form, can all be linked and can contribute to the Times Cited count for that article. Citations to either form will contribute to the Impact Factor calculation, as long as they note correctly the journal and the proper publication year for the article.


What are the page numbers that appear in PDFs of AOP papers?

For convenience, the PDF version of every AOP article is given a temporary pagination, beginning with page 1. This is unrelated to the final pagination in the printed article.


List of AOP Journals

Extra navigation

Receive RSS Web feeds
Follow us on Twitter | @Palgravejournal
Palgrave Open | Palgrave Macmillan now offers authors of accepted primary research papers the option to publish their articles with immediate Open Access upon publication. Read more…
Link to: Palgrave Communications | Palgrave Macmillan Journals